Jason Austin on the Bagpiper list at
Yahoogroups I got this:
"I learnt to play about 45 years ago in a small country town in
New Zealand and we used molasses to season the bag.
It gave the bag a lovely sweet earthy smell !"
3 parts Murphy's Oil Soap
1 part Crisco shortening
Half a capful of Lysol (not CUPful, CAPful)
Heat in microwave 45 seconds, stir, season, drain.
A "part" is 2 oz for a first seasoning and 1 oz for a re-seasoning.
This is a modification of Royce's recipe BTW.
And from Ian Richmond on the same list I got this recipe:
"1 part glycerine (available in a drug store),
1 part rubbing alcohol,
2 parts honey, no heating required.
This is a recipe given to me by George R. Duncan over forty years ago."
|30 ml glycerine,
30 ml rubbing alcohol
(or 40 ml 100-proof whisky)
60 ml honey,
10 grammes granulated gelatine dissolved in
30 ml boiling water (20 ml if using whisky).
|30 ml glycerine,
30 ml rubbing alcohol
(or 40 ml 100-proof whisky)*
60 ml honey,
30 ml (32 grams) anhydrous lanolin
5 grams granulated gelatin
15 ml boiling water (10 ml if using whisky)
1 (500mg) pill of salicylic acid (Aspirin)
* The only reason for using whisky instead of alcohol
is the nice smell it gives to the instrument ;-3)
Crush the Aspirin to a fine powder, mix well with the gelatin
and disolve in the boiling water.
Add the other ingredients except for alcohol or whisky,
mix well, let cool down, add alcohol or whisky, mix and store.
A plastic mustard or ketchup bottle is handy for use and storage.
When needed, warm up in the micro-wave, shake well as the
lanolin tends to go to the top if the bottle, pour into the bag.
After use, drain the bag and return the excess to the bottle.
It will keep for years if kept in the fridge.
to the College of Piping "Highland Bagpipe Tutor" Volume II (1971
"You can season your bag with a mixture of olive oil (for the skin) and brown sugar (for the moisture).
No proportions are given, only that you must adapt them "depending on the climate",
and whether you are a "dry blower" or a "wet blower".
"Treacle, honey, syrup, glycerine, glucose, gelatine and the white of an egg" are also mentioned in passing.
"To begin with you cannot do better in Scotland than use pure honey."
"Seasoning in an emergency
Sometimes you may have to season the bagpipe and play it the same night.
When this happens, mix a small quantity of honey and glycerine in equal proportions, and warm in a pan.
Do not dismantle the instrument, but take out the middle drone. Pour not more than one tablespoon
into the bag by way of the middle stock, making sure that the bag is held in such a way that the seasoning
flows to the back of the bag. Rub in as well as you can, clean out the middle stock, and replace the drone.
It is useful to know about this, but try to avoid landing yourself in such situations."
|In his book "The Highland bagpipe" (Alexander
Gardner, Paisley, 1901) William
Laird Manson tells us
(about Irish pipes): "The bag is made of goat's skin and is rendered pliable by means of bees' wax and butter".
In the same book, in the appendix "Practical Hints" by Pipe-Major A. D. Campbell, we find:
"For making the bag tight a paste composed of resin, beeswax and sweet oil boiled together is here recommended.
This, when cool, should be slightly thicker than cream.
After the stocks have been inserted a few spoonfuls of this paste should be put in (lukewarm),
then the stocks stopped up and a little wind left in the bag to prevent its sides sticking.
The skin should be rubbed and wrought until it becomes impregnated with the paste.
When pipes are much used, and the bag draws a good deal of water, the reeds will always be damp.
To remedy this, a little salt may be put into the bag, which will cause the damp to be discharged through the skin.
This, however, might make an old bag give way altogether. Water should never on any account be put into the bag.
The bag should always be soft and pliable. This can be managed in several ways.
After being dried, say half a teacupful of melted brown sugar may be passed into it, and worked with the hands,
the skin being then hung up overnight for the surplus sugar to run out."
following recipe is copied from a catalogue published by Henderson
Bagpipes in 1920.
"Cork all the stocks except one. Mix a quantity of unrefined cane sugar with a small amount of water,
melt to the consistency of syrup, and allow (the mixture) to cool until lukewarm.
Blow a little air into the bag to prevent the sides from adhering. Pour in the mixture, cork up the stock,
and rub the bag thoroughly between the hands until the sugar is spread over the inside.
Hang up the bag for a few hours to drip through the chanter stock. Finish by wiping out the stocks.
The bag is now ready to use. This treatment we have always used and found it most satisfactory.
The coating of sugar absorbs the distilled water arising from the hot breath blown in, therefore keeping the reeds in form.
Greasy and oily substances are in many cases used they have the reverse effect on the reeds and are not good for the skin.
Treacle and sugar should never be used it penetrates through and damages the clothing."
MacLellan's "Piper's Handbook" is unusually silent on the subject of
the composition of seasoning,
the only one he mentions "comes in a can, please follow the makers instructions",
but in an interesting aside, he states that should one happen to change from one type of seasoning to
another, one should first rinse out the bag with warm water to which some Dettol has been added.
David Schultz, in far-away Australia:
"Back in the 1950's we used to use a mixture of petroleum jelly (vaseline) and honey. I can't remember the proportions
but both ingredients were heated and mixed together and used in the same way modern dressings are used.
This mixture was so successful I can only remember seasoning my sheepskin bag a few times in 7 years of constant playing.
The pipes were then stored away for about 30 years.After this time they were not completely airtight, but could still be played.
The bag appeared to still be in perfect condition.I'm sure that had I seasoned it with the same mixture again it would have been as good as new."
| The composition of commercial
seasoning is a closely-guarded secret.
Yet it is rumoured that Hardie's famous Airtight Seasoning is made mostly of lanolin suspended in glycerine, and a small amount of lye.
his treaty "Skol ar Biniou", Dorig le Voyer, a Breton pipe maker,
proposed several recipes for "stouv-toul",
litterally "plug-hole" in the Breton language.
"Boil molasses on a low fire to thicken it; when it reaches the consistency of gelatine use it,
after letting it cool so as not to damage the leather with excessive heat.
Not advised in very humid conditions, as it absorbs too much water and seeps through the leather.
Gives the instrument a bad smell."
Glucose and oat malt :
"Perfect airtightness, but not to be used by occasional players: if it dries out the bag remains stuck together,
and becomes impossible to inflate."
Neatsfoot oil (Huile de pied de beuf) :
"This makes the leather airtight, but it also weakens the leather and in hot weather it seeps through and spoils the piper's clothes."
Neatsfoot oil and resin :
"Boil two parts of resin in one part of oil, apply once it has cooled down.
Leaves an oily deposit on the reeds, which tends to make them too soft."
Sugar syrup :
"Best avoided, since the pure sugar causes the leather to perish very quickly.
Only acceptable in small quantity as an addition to some other recipe."
Glue, sugar and glycerine :
"Take a 3 cm by 3 cm (1 1/4" by 1 1/4" for the un-metric heathens) square of joiner's glue (bone glue or leather glue)
and steep it in water overnight; it will become jelly-like.
Heat up this jelly on a low fire until it has the consistency of table oil.
Add 1/4 volume of glycerine, and a tablespoon of sugar.
This mixture, heated for ten minutes (avoid boiling) is introduced lukewarm in the bag."
Glue and glycerine :
"Take a 5 cm by 5 cm (2" by 2") square of joiner's glue (bone glue or leather glue) and steep it in water overnight;.
place it in a pan with an equal volume of glycerine, melt on a low fire, use warm.
Should the bag dry out, you can return it to a supple state by pouring a little glycerine into it."
But he also mentions that in Scotland the seasoning can be got ready made, in little tins.
Castel suggests in his "Methode de Biniou et Bombarde" to use "mixtures
of honey and glycerine,
or of seal fat and glycerine"; no proportions are given.
He also proposes a recipe popular with pipers in earlier times, "a mixture of vegetable oil and egg white,
heated on a low fire till the egg white begins to coagulate;" again no proportions.
On the Bobdunsire forum (http://forums.bobdunsire.com/forums/showthread.php?t=79042) :
From Tom Weir:
"My tutor gave me this recipe that he has used for years. I've never used it but I have the stuff to mix it up for my next seasoning.
Mix the components and warm it in a a small bottle placed in water on the stove. Heat it until it mixes and flows easily.
Don't use a microwave to heat it because it will get too hot (oops- that's been said before).
2 parts of Glycerine
4 parts of Honey
4 parts of Anhydrous Lanolin"
"A 50/50 combination of honey and glycerine, I would recommend this as an easy, inexpensive, and workable combination;
but caution that you may want to reduce the amount of glycerine depending on how much humidity there is where you live."
|From D Campbell:
"A cup of honey, a cup of molasses and an egg (white only? I can check if you want). Mix and heat in a sauce pan 'till pourable."
From Patrick Piper:
"Royce Lerwick's seasoning. I think it's: 2 parts Murphy's Oil Soap, 1 part Crisco Shortening with a few drops of Pine Sol.
Warmed in a microwave just until it's mixed together. It does smell kind of "janitorial", though. Some like it, some don't."
From Stig Bang-Mortensen:
"50% animal glue and 50% sugar and some drops of Dettol; looks like Airtight and smells like Airtight. And even works like Airtight."
And also (http://forums.bobdunsire.com/forums/showthread.php?t=144681
From Colin Boucher "figjam911"
"When I first started to play...we didn't have the luxury of proprietary seasoning such as 'Airtight' and we made our own concoction.
The recipe was basically made up of treacle, sugar, honey, a little neatsfoot oil, a dash or more of whisky for a nice smell depending
upon taste, all mixed up and poured into the bag, rubbed in and the bag left overnight to drain out.
It worked...but the bags rotted real quick. The stuff leaked through the leather and stained the outer bag and clothing sometimes."
From Scot Kortegaard
"When I was a kid (wasn't that long ago!), all we ever used was a vaseline and glycerin mixture. If memory serves ...
three tablespoons of vaseline, add glycerin and stir until the right consistency is achieved, runny, but not thin. "
"My old teacher swore by Ichthammol ointment and glycerine.....
Ichthammol is basically vasaline and lanolin with antiseptic.
It worked fine as seasoning and smelled (stunk?) better than Airtight....."
- Compiler's note: "Ichthammol ointment" aka BP 1980 in the UK.
"According to the version of Logan’s Tutor that I started with, 1955, the procedure that was stated was to use Treacle.
What I was taught back then was a concoction of Lanolin, glycerin with a touch of honey. Lanolin is natural oil,
Glycerin is hydroscopic and honey for tradition. It worked very well kept the leather supple and lasted a long time.
I still use it on my pipes with a leather bag. (You heat the lanolin in a double boiler until liquid, add the rest,
mix and work it into the bag the hang to drain over night)"
|From Peter Frodermo on
http://olle.gallmo.se/sackpipa/maintenance.php, a recipe from Sweden:
"Buy hide glue (in granulated form), glycerine (glycerol) and a conservative such as Atamon
(sodium benzoate, or whatever your old grandmother used when she conserved lemonade).
Pour two table spoons of hide glue in a can. Cut the top off a beer can or use a plastic cup.
Pour water over the glue, so that it covers the glue by about 0.5 centimetres (1/5").
Put the can in a pot of simmering water on the stove and stir until the the glue is completely dissolved.
The liquid should now have the consistency of unwhipped cream.
Add glycerine, about 4 times as much as there is glue in the can.
Also add a table spoon of Atamon (or whatever conservative you use).
Stir and then let the solution cool down a bit. "
|From Bill Carr (Nordic Piper) :
"Here's one. It's based on Royce's "Uptight" but I reckon it's better. A bit more work though.
1 cup vegetable shortening.
2 cups natural plant or wood soap (pine soap)
1 cup clear sugar syrup. (honey if you can afford it)
2 teaspoons gelatin crystals.
Just enough hot water to dissolve the gelatin.
Warm the vegetable shortening till it's clear. Stir in the soap first.
You end up with a milky white liquid that can be used as bag seasoning as it is.
Next stir in the syrup and finally the dissolved gelatin. Make sure it is completely dissolved.
Warm the whole thing so that every thing blends together. DON'T BOIL!
Set it aside over night to cool and set.
What you end up with looks like, tastes like, and has the same consistency as, Hardie's Airtight.
It works just as well too."
|From J. Morrison on
"Old-time pipers in Montana were unable to obtain store-bought seasoning from Scotland and resorted
to many concoctions, among them plain old honey, honey and glycerine, hide glue and glycerine,"
<firstname.lastname@example.org> sent me the link to a document in the National Museums of Scotland site
in which David Glen the pipe-maker gives his recipe for seasoning the sheepskin bag of a set of Highland bagpipes.
The ingredients given are pure lard and resin in equal quantities, melted until they come to the boil and allowed to cool.
Pour the mixture into the bag and to rub it in to make the bag supple and airtight.
Adding a small piece of Archangel Tar to the mixture can be advantageous.
This he says is the mixture he sells ready-made in tins to his customers.
He also sent me a link to an article on Donald Macpherson who gives Donald's father's recipe:
"My father’s own recipe for seasoning with boracic powder, flour water and probably sugar, worked well because
it kept the bag dry and tight.
Unfortunately once at Oban in the very early ’50s I was tuning up ready to go on when suddenly the chanter seized.
Sure enough there was a lump of seasoning on the reed. So it was under the tap and a bit of panic, but fortunately
I managed to get away with it and was successful. But that was the end of that stuff and I went on to ‘Airtight’."
to me by Sarah Laidlaw Tilevitz, from a letter home by her father
Capt. William Richard Laidlaw, 463rd Pcht F.A. Bn (part of 101st
Airborne Division), Southern France, 16 October 1944:
"I used part of the honey you sent in my pipes, and the rest I am saving for whenever we have pancakes. Most of it stayed in the can OK, but if you ever send any more I think a screw top jar would be better. Anyway, I won’t need any more for my pipes for nearly a year."
|From the Bagpipe
Master Facebook group, Keith Walker sent me:
Equal parts of honey, lanolin and glycerine used warm to flow easily.